Keyword stuffing is a black-hat search engine optimization (SEO) technique that involves overloading a webpage with keywords or numbers in an attempt to manipulate a site’s ranking in Google search results. Often these keywords appear in a list or group, or out of context (not as natural prose). This practice is considered unethical and goes against most search engines’ guidelines. It can result in a negative user experience, as the content of a keyword-stuffed website can be repetitive, nonsensical, or difficult to read, and may not provide any real value to the reader. Search engines have become increasingly sophisticated in identifying and penalizing websites that employ keyword stuffing, as their algorithms prefer high-quality content that is relevant and beneficial to users. Websites caught keyword stuffing may be demoted in rankings or even removed from search results entirely. As such, modern SEO strategies focus on creating valuable content that naturally incorporates keywords in a way that is helpful to the reader, ensuring both search engines and users can find and appreciate the content.